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It also examines how changing rural and urban contexts, as well as wider national and regional contexts, affect patterns of income diversification and mobility, especially the differential impacts with regard to women and men and to young and older people. The study area is located in the Kagera Region of north-west Tanzania.Finally, it analyzes the role of the case studies’ urban centres in the economic and social development of their surrounding regions. The paper attempts to demonstrate how rural areas and small urban centres are economically interdependent.The validity of a rather old concept (first discussions date from the 1950s) will be assessed, and its evolution when confronted with new theoretical contexts such as globalisation will be examined.Rural areas have long been a source of food, raw materials and labour for cities.The most successful village households appear to be those which use urban opportunities and assets (for example, urban employment, urban house and shop ownership) to diversify income sources and thereby avoid the uncertainties of relying solely on marketable crop production for household security.As a backdrop to the whole discussion, an attempt is made to analyze the types of households which might be poor or, at least, susceptible to poverty. - USTHB [pdf] Algeria- As many other countries of the world, the northern African countries also suffer from environmental and geological problems, among others, the large cities and their suburbs.
Staple crop farmers in the vicinity of both cities value urban waste as a source of organic matter and are prepared to pay for it.The aim of the research was to gain a better understanding of the ways in which the livelihoods of rural and urban households rely on both rural-based and urban-based resources, and on exchanges between urban and rural areas.The paper describes changes in farming systems under the impact of urban expansion, with special attention to access to land and other natural resources such as water, and also access to markets and the role of traders, especially small-scale operators. 1, April 1995 - IIED [pdf] Tanzania - This paper presents empirical material collected in the small town of Biharamulo (population 20,000) and four surrounding villages in 1993.Cultivation on degraded soils has even been revived in some cases thanks to this readily available resource.However, uncertain land tenure means that farmers have little incentive to ensure the safe disposal of dangerous elements in solid waste.
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